SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing (ERC)

                                                          **  Bringing Sustainability to Semiconductor Manufacturing **

A multi-university research center leading the way to environmentally friendly semiconductor manufacturing, sponsored by the Semiconductor Research Corporation's Global Research Collaboration (GRC) Research Program



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- 2015 -
Jan. 8, 2015 Host: Farhang Shadman, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Presented by: Jivaan Kishore Jhothiraman, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Topic title:
 "Application of PCP in drying down UHP gas distribution systems and tools"
 Presence of trace contaminants in process fluids is highly detrimental to the manufacture of high performance semiconductor devices. Gas distribution systems transporting ultra-high purity gas from bulk storage to the point of use are susceptible to contaminants owing to the interactions with the EPSS surface. This necessitates frequent purging of the distribution lines to meet the stringent restrictions placed at the point of use in current fabrication processes. Process throughput and economy of high volume manufacturing processes is severely affected by the high amount of UHP gas and process downtime involved with such purging operations.  Current work focusses on application of PCP on purging of gas distribution networks and process tools.
            A combinatorial approach involving experimental investigation and process simulation is used to analyze the effect of operational and geometrical parameters affecting contaminant propagation. The process simulator predictions are validated using data from an experimental test bed using moisture as the model contaminant.  The application of cyclic purge on dead volumes in gas distribution systems and process tools with varying number and sizes of dead volumes and is studied. The advantages of pressure cyclic purge over conventional purge is presented in terms of savings in purge time and purge gas usage in order to realize a certain purity baseline, along with system parameters for which this advantage can be realized. Key cycling parameters such as frequency, ratio of pressurization to depressurization times, pressure ranges and PCP sequences are identified for effective contaminant removal. (PDF)
Feb. 5 Cancelled
Mar. 5 HostJane Chang, Professor and Associate Dean, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California-Los Angeles
Presented by
:  Jane Chang, University of California-Los Angeles
Topic title:  “Alternative etchants for magnetic materials”
AbstractIn this work, a thermodynamic approach is used to assess the feasibility of various etch chemistries for cobalt-based magnetic metal materials. Utilization of volatility diagrams assisted in the identification of major etch products and their corresponding vapor pressures. Special attention is paid to surface modification of elemental and alloyed magnetic metals via halogens with sequential hydrogen exposure to improve the overall etching efficacy.  The understanding of these reaction kinetics can further supports the development of atomic layer etch of these magnetic metal materials.  (PDF)
April 2 No TeleSeminar:  ERC Review Meeting
May 7 Host:  Paul Pantano, Associate Professor of Chemistry, University of Texas - Dallas
Guest presentation by
Walt Trybula, IEEE and SPIE Fellow, Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University – San Marcos
Topic title:
"Nanotechnology Safety Education"
This presentation will cover the steps that led to the development of and the details in two NSF sponsored nanotechnology safety education courses.  The content of the courses is critical; however, traditional thinking would not fill the need for educating future nanotech workers.  The concern for an impact on people and the environment is of primary safety concern. 
The two most significant challenges in nanotechnology safety development are that a) typical testing of toxicity can take seven or more years and b) there are over 10200 possible materials to be considered.  It becomes almost impossible to understand the impact of novel materials prior to their development and testing.  Added to these facts is that a typical start-up survives for 18 months or less.  Starting with this understanding, the courses were developed to educate people on how to address situations with unknowns.  From the beginning, it was recognized that both ethics and risk needed to be a significant component of the program.  The courses have been thoroughly review and well received.  (PDF)
Along with Walt Trybula1, Ph.D., the rest of the course development investigators, Jitendra Tate2, Ph.D., Dominick Fazarro3, Ph.D., and Craig Hanks4, Ph.D., will be on the call looking for comments and suggestions to improve their efforts. 

1Trybula Foundation, Inc., and Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University; 2Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University (PI); 3Department of Technology, University of Texas at Tyler; 4Department of Philosophy, Texas State University.

June 4
First of the 'new' SRC WebEx presentations

You are invited to participate in a GRC Technology Transfer e-Workshop, hosted by Professor Anthony Muscat, who will be speaking on research related to task 425.049 in the Environmental, Safety and Health thrust. 
Host:  Professor Anthony Muscat, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Presented by:  Jimmy Hackett, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Title: “Investigation of Speciation in III-V Wet Etching to Mitigate Hazardous Product Formation

Abstract:  As III-V materials become more widely considered for use as semiconductors, the need to understand their processing increases. The objective of this study is to investigate the species formed during a typical wet-etching of III-V materials. InAs samples were etched in 0.1 M HCl and 0.01 M H2O2. The liquid phase was analyzed using ICP-MS to measure the total concentration of indium and arsenic as a function of time. The results showed a 1:1 ratio of indium and arsenic in the liquid phase. Additionally, the concentration data was used to calculate an etching rate of 0.78 ± 0.06 nm/s. A separate etching experiment using profilometry obtained an etching rate of 0.89 ± 0.3 nm/s. Statistical agreement between the etching rates from ICP-MS and profilometry shows that a mass balance was closed around the sample. Furthermore, the concentration data obtained for these experiments indicate that under these conditions all species formed remained in the liquid phase.  (PDF)
All contributors
** Anthony Muscat, Professor and Department Head, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
** Srini Raghavan
, Professor, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona
** Tim Corley, Director, Analytical Facilities-Research Support, Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona
** Jimmy Hackett, Bing Wu, and Pablo Mancheno, Graduate Students, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona

July 9 No TeleSeminar
Aug. 6 Host:  Shyam Aravamudhan, The Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering (JSNN), North Carolina A&T State University
Presented by:  Joseph Starobin, Department of Nanoscience, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina A&T State University and The University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
Topic title:  "Analysis of cardiac repolarization as a tool for the noninvasive assessment of cardiovascular system upon exposure to nanomaterials"
The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility for measurements of cardiac repolarization as a tool for the noninvasive assessment of cardiovascular system upon exposure to nanomaterials. Cardiac repolarization is a process of recovery of the heart after a previous excitation. It is a major physiological process which determines stability of cardiac rhythm. Recently, we introduced the reserve of refractoriness (RoR), as a novel measure of stability of cardiac excitation. In this project, we utilize this novel RoR measure as a high throughput, non-invasive and relatively easy tool to monitor over time (both acute and chronic, along with repeated or systematic exposure) the toxicological effects of nanomaterials on cardiac function in vivo. In this talk, we will discuss results of cardiac measure from pulmonary exposure to CNTs and ceria nanoparticles with and without dobutamine" stress" test. (PDF)
Sept. 3 Host:  Reyes Sierra, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona and Paul Westerhoff, Arizona State University
Presentation by:  Reyes Sierra, The University of Arizona and Xiangyu Bi, Arizona State University
Topic title
:  "Aquatic Fate and Toxicity of III/V Semiconductor Materials in the Presence of Chemical-mechanical Planarization Nanoparticles"
AbstractIntroduction of III-V materials (e.g. gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium indium arsenide, (GaInAs)) in semiconductor and electronics manufacturing is expected to lead to the generation of large volumes of wastewaters combining metal oxide nanoparticles (SiO2, Al2O3 and CeO2) utilized in chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) slurries and III-V metals (arsenic, gallium and indium).  The potential that these engineered nanoparticles (NPs) may act as carriers of toxic III-V species is a concern.  This project aims to quantify the adsorption of III-V materials by CMP NPs and explore how these interactions may impact the environmental fate, biological uptake and aquatic toxicity of III-V species and NPs.  This presentation will discuss results of studies conducted to assess the ecotoxicity of III-V species as well as experimental data that confirm the occurrence of III/V ion sorption onto CMP NPs.  Potential implications of the interactions between III/V ions and CMP NPs for the fate and toxicity of these materials will be addressed. (PDF)
Oct. 1 No TeleSeminar:  Review Webinar
Nov. 5 HostHost:  Manish Keswani, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona
Presentation by:  Mingrui Zhao, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona 
Topic title
“Wet Processing Applications in Integrated Circuit Fabrication”
Megasonic cleaning has been widely used for removal of particulate contaminants from various surfaces in semiconductor processing. In order to achieve effective cleaning without feature damage, it is critical to identify experimental conditions that yield optimized levels of stable and transient cavitation. In the first part of the presentation, some of the fundamental work on characterization of acoustic cavitation using different direct and indirect techniques will be reviewed. Effect of sound field and solution parameters on cavitation behavior will be discussed.In the second part of the presentation, a recently developed contactless technique on bottom-up electrodeposition of metals (Cu or Ni) for TSV applications will be described. The electrochemical system consists of two chamber cell containing deposition and etching solutions with a silicon wafer sealed in between. Feasibility studies demonstrating the effect of applied current density and deposition and etching solution composition and temperature on deposited metal quality/deposition rate will be discussed. The presentation will highlight the role of backside silicon oxidation and subsequent oxide etching on kinetics of metal deposition.  (PDF)
Dec. 3 Host:  TBA
Jan. 7, 2016 Host:  TBA

TeleSem dial-in information to be replaced by the SRC's Webinar request, as of June 2015 >>> for my records >>>>>>>
"The current presentation is linked below (ERC website:) as well as posted at our partner site, SemiNeedle (, where in addition to accessing the presentation you can ask questions and add comments on the presentation and connect with presenters and other attendees."
  SemiNeedle   enhanced access website:
  ERC website: (PDF) to be posted
Dial-in # (caller paid & International): 1-719-955-1670
Please use this number if your company can cover the long distance charge; this choice will help the ERC budget and keep our cost down.
Dial-in # (toll free): 1-800-375-2612
Use this toll free number if needed; the ERC will gladly pay for the long distance charge.
Participant pass code: 675623  (followed by # sign)
Please mute your phone during the speaker's presentation to eliminate unnecessary noise over the phone lines; disengage mute for Q&A. 
If you do NOT have a mute button on your phone, use *6 to engage mute during the presentation, then *6 (again) to disengage.
~ Do not put the conference call on hold; "hold audio" will be disruptive to other call participants. 
To disengage call waiting (check local phone directory for instructions). 
~ For best sound quality when using speaker phones, face the microphone when speaking; mute the phone/microphones when not speaking.
If possible, avoid using cellular or cordless phones which may cause unnecessary feedback or noise during the conference.

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