SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing (ERC)

                                                          **  Bringing Sustainability to Semiconductor Manufacturing **

A multi-university research center leading the way to environmentally friendly semiconductor manufacturing, sponsored by the Semiconductor Research Corporation's Global Research Collaboration (GRC) Research Program



Home  : Seminar Series : Schedule

Adobe Acrobat Reader For archived presentations:  1998  1999   2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

- 2011 -
Jan. 13 No TeleSeminar--Holiday Schedule
Jan. 27 Host:  Srini Raghavan, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona
Presentation by:  Dinesh Thanu, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona
Topic title:   Liquid Mixtures of Urea and Choline Chloride for Use in Back End of Line (BEOL) Cleaning
Abstract:   Removal of post etch residues using a novel liquid formulation containing a liquid (molten) mixture of two benign chemicals, choline chloride and urea has been investigated. Residues created during plasma etching of g- line and Deep UV (DUV) photoresist films on copper were used for this study. Both types of residues were effectively removed using eutectic mixtures of urea and choline chloride, at a molar ratio of 2:1, in the temperature range of 40 to 70oC. Extent of removal has been characterized using SEM, XPS and electrochemical techniques. Additionally, it has been found that the residue removal can be obtained with a high degree of selectivity with respect to low-k dielectric materials.   (PDF)
Feb. 10 Host:  Ara Philipossian, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Presented by:  Dr. Rakesh K. Singh, Manager, WW CMP Applications and New Business Development, Contamination Control Solutions, Entegris Inc.
Topic title:  "New Developments in Post-CMP Cleaning Technology"
Recent advancements in the post-CMP (PCMP) cleaning technology for next-generation applications will be discussed, with a special emphasis on the design and characterization of PCMP cleaning polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) brushes. Results of a number of case studies are presented with representative data. In the first study, modified charge Planarcore® PVA brushes were developed and characterized for zeta potential distribution at different pH values. These enhanced negative zeta potential brushes provide much improved PCMP cleaning performance in smaller-node, high-sensitivity copper/low-k processes.
In the second study, a new generation of modified nodule shape molded-through-the-core (MTTC) Planarcore brushes were developed for specific wafer cleaning challenge. One such example was the near wafer edge cleaning issue seen in an advanced application. Modified nodule brushes provided differentiated cleaning action in various parts of the wafer and required enhanced cleaning in the edge region. In the third test, several commercially available slip-on-the-core (SOTC) and Planarcore MTTC brushes were analyzed for tribological data using a benchtop tribometer. The effects of four acidic and one alkaline PCMP cleaning chemistries were studies on the brush PVA skin-friction and other tribological parameters, over a wide range of brush rotational speeds.
In the fourth study, extended period chemical soak tests of brushes were performed in five copper/low-k PCMP cleaning chemistries dilute solutions, to quantify the effects of long term chemical exposure on the brush PVA physical properties. It is important to understand such behavior to achieve consistent cleaning performance over the entire lifetime of brushes. In this study, most acidic PCMP cleans showed significant color change of PVA as well as the soaking solutions, whereas all brushes had only a limited change in the physical properties of PVA. Present study demonstrates the usefulness of new brush designs and characterization methods for advanced PCMP cleaning applications.
Feb. 24 Host:  Farhang Shadman, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Presented by:  Roy Dittler, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Topic title: 
Novel methods for reducing the usage of high-purity gases in SC Fabs
The removal of moisture contamination in ultra high purity (UHP) gas distribution systems was approached by using a novel technique dubbed, pressure cyclic purge (PCP).  Electro-polished stainless steel (EPSS) piping was contaminated with moisture, from a controlled source, and then purged using a conventional purge technique or a PCP technique.  Moisture removal rates and overall moisture removal was determined by measuring gas phase moisture concentration in real time via a moisture analyzer that utilizes cavity ring-down spectroscopy.  When compared to conventional purge, PCP reduced the time required and the purge gas needed to clean the UHP gas distribution systems.  Most recently, testing and modeling was performed to test the effectiveness of PCP in systems with laterals; more specifically, laterals with a “dead volume”.  Lab test and model results showed that PCP, though effective in removing moisture in piping with no laterals, is even more efficient in removing moisture contamination from the laterals with a “dead volume”.  (PDF)
March 10 No TeleSeminar -- Annual Review Meeting
March 24 No TeleSeminar
April 7 HostSteve Nielsen/Inga Musselman, Department of Chemistry, University of Texas-Dallas
Presented by
1) R. J. K. Udayana Ranatunga (graduate student); 2) Ruhung Wang (research associate), University of Texas-Dallas
Topic title
"Nanoparticle aggregation and toxicity"
Part 1 – Presented by Udayana Ranatunga:   Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are widely applied in biomedical science. To understand the interaction between SWNTs and biological systems, various studies have attempted to use coarse grained molecular dynamics (CGMD). However, there is limited validation of the existing CG models of SWNTs. Here, we present CG models for both pristine and carboxylated SWNTs which are validated against experimental dispersion data. In addition, we present the first ever DLVO analysis of the colloidal stability of parallel SWNTs and establish that the solvent-induced repulsion between fullerenes, which is not considered in DLVO theory, is crucial to obtain a correct physical picture of SWNT dispersibility. The results presented here provide physical insight into the colloidal stability of SWNTs, and can be applied to large-scale MD studies of biological systems.
Part 2
– Presented by Ruhung Wang
:   MWNTs are on an emerging material on the roadmap and potentially have EHS implications.  To assess potential adverse ESH impacts of MWNTs, we studied two commercial MWNT products, one pristine and one carboxylated.  To facilitate biological testing, the MWNTs were dispersed in aqueous solutions using two bio-compatible surfactants: bovine serum albumin (BSA, a common blood protein used often to disperse carbon nanotubes) and a tri-block copolymer Pluronic F127. The effectiveness in dispersing MWNTs using BSA and Pluronic F127 was compared.  Our preliminary results indicated that Pluronic F127 is a more effective dispersant than BSA.  Dynamic light scattering measurements of particle size distribution revealed less aggregated material in Pluronic dispersions.  In vitro cytotoxicity of MWNTs dispersed either in BSA or in Pluronic solutions were assessed using an established mammalian cell line.  Pristine and carboxylated MWNTs dispersions prepared in BSA were cytotoxic and significantly inhibited cell proliferation.  A brief centrifugation step of the dispersions removes large aggregates and reduces cytotoxicity by ~ 10 fold.  In contrast, both pristine and carboxylated MWNTs dispersed in Pluronic F127 were much less cytotoxicity even without centrifugation.  Further investigation on the interaction between MWNT particles and different dispersants will clarify the correlation between particle aggregation and toxicity observed in this in vitro cell line model system.  (PDF)
April 21

Presentation by:   Scott Boitano and Mia McCorkel, University of Arizona
Topic title:   "Measuring Nano-Cytotoxicity Over Time: High Throughput Detection of Cell Death and Cellular Signaling Pathways"

We have been studying nanoparticle toxicity on two immortalized human derived cell lines that model high risk areas of exposure: a HaCat skin epithelial cell line and a 16HBE14o- airway epithelial cell line. Using cell death as an endpoint, and integrating use of both standard high throughput techniques we have found that these epithelial cell lines are quite resistant to most nanoparticles exposures up to > 1000 ppm. To more closely understand the potential damage to the cell following nanoparticle exposure, we have shifted to evaluating the effects of nanoparticle exposure on specific cellular signaling pathways. We will show data that details the detrimental effects of 24 hr nanoparticle exposure on ATP-induced cellular signaling at levels of 10 – 25 ppm. We will discuss further use of high throughput and standard techniques to best evaluate potential cellular signaling pathways modifications as a determinant of nanotoxicity. (PDF)

May 5 No TeleSeminar -- Spring Break
May 19 Host::  Jim Farrell and Jim Baygents, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Presented by:  Jake Davis, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Topic title:  "Key Issues Affecting Water Use and Recycle in High Volume Semiconductor Manufacturing"
There is growing concern about the future availability and quality of public water supplies. This concern is driving regulatory action that will ultimately present significant challenges to the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Future regulation will force the semiconductor manufacturing industry to both utilize impaired water resources and meet stricter wastewater discharge requirements. These industry challenges and public concerns are described in this presentation along with several pertinent water treatment technologies. (PDF)
June 2

Host:  Alex Tropsha, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
Presented by:  Denis Fourches and Alex Tropsha, UNC
Topic title: Computer-Aided Design of Nanomaterials with the Desired Bioactivity and Safety Profiles
Abstract Evaluation of biological effects of nanomaterials (NMs) is of critical importance for the future of nanotechnology in biomedical and industrial applications. Experimental studies (especially, toxicological) are time-consuming, costly, and often impractical calling for the development of in silico approaches. We will discuss (i) the need of electronic, inter-laboratory databases regrouping all published information concerning NMs, especially their measured physical/chemical properties and associated biological profiles; (ii) the challenging development of new NM descriptors computationally derived from molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemistry calculations; and (iii) the potential of cheminformatics methods to develop statistically significant and externally predictive Quantitative Nanostructure–Activity Relationship (QNAR) models (Fourches et al., ACS Nano, 2010, 4:5703-12; Fourches et al., Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2011, 14:217-25). We will also present the first study reporting the computer-aided design of new carbon nanotubes with the desired bioactivity and safety profiles: (1) we successfully developed robust QNAR models for 84 carbon nanotubes decorated with organic surface modifiers; (2) these models were applied for virtual screening of a library of 240,000 ligands potentially attachable to carbon nanotubes to identify  hits with the desired predicted bioactivity and toxicity properties; (3) selected nanotubes decorated by the ligands indentified with the help of QNAR models were experimentally synthesized and successfully validated by our collaborator, Dr. Bing Yan at St. Jude Children Research Hospital. Our study demonstrates how QNAR models can be used to predict activity profiles of NMs and bias the design of new NMs towards products with the desired bioactivity and safety profiles.  (D. Fourches, D. Pu, and A. Tropsha.   Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, USA)  (PDF)

June 16 Host:  Manish Keswani, Material Sciences and Engineering, University of Arizona
Presented by:  Dr. Steven Verhaverbeke, Applied Materials Inc.
Topic title:  "Aspects of Single Wafer Processing Tools"
Abstract:   In this talk, various aspects of single wafer processing will be covered with an emphasis on cleaning tools. At first some generalities of particles and particle distributions will be given. Then, we will look at the behavior of particles in the gas phase and the practical applications of these behavioral theories. Particularly, the effect of charging will be covered and the design implications. Finally, all of the common mechanically assisted cleaning technologies will be listed and their applications in semiconductor manufacturing. (PDF)
June 30 No TeleSeminar -- July 4th Holiday


July 14 Host:  Farhang Shadman, Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Presented by:  Hao Wang, Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Topic title
Characterization of the Surface Properties of Nanoparticles Using Moisture Adsorption Dynamic Profiling”
Adsorption and retention of molecular contaminants on nanoparticles (NPs) is a major factor in determining the environmental and health effects of the particles. A method has been developed for characterizing the surface properties that contribute to the adsorption and desorption interactions. This method uses a sample cell and an in-situ FTIR to obtain the time profiles of dynamic interactions of adsorbing species on NP samples under different temperatures. The results are then analyzed using a process simulator to determine the fundamental properties such as capacity, affinity, rate expressions, and activation energies of NP interactions with contaminants. The method is illustrated using moisture as a representative model compound and particles of SiO2, HfO2, and CeO2, which are three oxides used in semiconductor manufacturing. The results indicate that the surface interaction parameters are species, particle size and temperature dependent. The size effect is expected to be a major contributor to the synergistic and enhanced environmental and health impact of NPs compared to larger particles. Factors contributing to the environmental and health impact of NPs (extent of surface coverage, capacity, and activation energy of retention) are higher for smaller particles of the same oxide. Based on the observed activation energies, the strong interaction with adsorbing contaminants is a key characteristic that makes NPs different from larger particles and contributes to their potential environmental and health impact.  (PDF)
July 28 No TeleSeminar
Aug. 11 Host:  Christopher Ober, Materials Science & Engineering, Cornell University
Presented by:   Christine Ouyang, Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University
Topic title:  “Environmentally Friendly Non-Aqueous Development”
Studies of environmentally friendly solvent-based developers:  The production of micro-electronic devices is a highly solvent-intensive process. It consumes a large volume of organic solvents, inorganic acids/bases and purified water, accordingly generates the same amount of waste. Besides the environmental issue, inherent physical properties of conventional solvents, such as high surface tension, are considered undesirable for high aspect-ratio patterns. To overcome these problems, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and silicone fluids have been identified as promising alternatives.

    ScCO2 is a single-phase fluid that exists above the critical point of carbon dioxide (Tc=31 oC, Pc=7.4 MPa). It is nontoxic, nonflammable, inert under most chemical conditions, and can be easily recycled. In general, scCO2 is a good solvent for small molecules but not for polymeric materials, particularly those lacking fluorine or silicon moieties. Therefore, processing of conventional polymer-based photoresists in scCO2 requires either co-solvents or additives which can enhance the solvating power of scCO2. Recently, we have shown that fluorinated quaternary ammonium salts can increase the solubility of conventional polymeric photoresists in scCO2, which enables high resolution patterning under electron-beam exposure conditions. Another important approach is to employ molecular imaging materials. Suitably functionalized molecular glass (MG) photoresists have sufficient solubility in scCO2, along with the benefit of high-resolution patterning and improved line edge roughness (LER).
    Silicone fluids, also known as linear methyl siloxanes, are a class of environmentally friendly, non-polar solvents with zero ozone-depletion and low global warming potentials. They have been used for several industrial applications, such as water removal in microelectronics processing, lubrication and cleaning, but no examples of application in photoresist processing has been reported. The solvent strength of silicone fluids is weaker than that of saturated hydrocarbons but significantly stronger than that of the commercially available saturated hydrofluorocarbons, and can be enhanced by mixing with co-solvents.

    In this presentation, we show the development process in scCO2 and silicone fluids. Both conventional photoresists and molecular glass resists were successfully patterned, with feature sizes as small as 30 nm.  (PDF)
Aug. 25 No TeleSeminar
Sep. 8 Host: Reyes Sierra, Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Presented by:   Reyes Sierra, Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Topic title
:  “Assessment of nanotoxicity using cell-microelectronic sensing”
:   The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate impedance-based Real Time Cell-Electronic Sensing (RT-CES) as a high throughput technique for dynamic monitoring of nanoparticle cytotoxicity.  A series of inorganic oxide nanoparticles was tested which included, among others, ceria, silica, and alumina, all of which are important components in chemo-mechanical planarization (CMP) slurries, and other emerging nanomaterials utilized in semiconductor manufacturing.  Target cells used for the study were human lung epithelial cells, 16HBE14o-.  Cytotoxicity varied widely depending on the nature of the inorganic oxide. The inhibitory concentrations determined with the new RT-CES technique correlated well with those generated by a commonly used cytotoxicity assay (i.e. MTT, indicator of cell redox activity). The results obtained demonstrate the potential of this high throughput technique for screening cytoxicity of nanomaterials. Impacts of media on aggregation of nanoparticles are also discussed.  (PDF)
Sep. 22 No TeleSeminar
Oct. 6 Host: Anthony Muscat, Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Presented by: David F. Hilscher, IBM Semiconductor Research and Development Center
Topic title:  "A review of variability reduction strategies:  intrinsic advantages of e-sulfuric and single wafer cleaning"
The leverage and importance of cleaning and surface preparation to device manufacturing only continues to grow despite predictions to the contrary
more than a decade ago by many in the field.  Yield improvement driven through
reductions in variability has been a theme over the past several years, so this
presentation will focus on the sources of variability in wets processing and
their countermeasures.    
   The presentation will use a green resist strip technology called electrolyzed sulfuric acid (e-Sulfuric) and single wafer cleaning as highlighted examples to discuss variability reduction.   Both of those cleaning technologies have variability reduction elements intrinsic to their approach. (PDF)
Oct. 20 Host: Alex Tropsha, Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Presented by
Dr. Nathan Baker, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Topic title:  "
Informatics and Standards for Nanomedicine Technology"
Nanomedicine deals with the development and biomedical application of nanotechnology-based methods and products. Nanotechnology provides the ability to manipulate and characterize matter at the nanoscale. This ability has enabled the research and development of nanoscale-sized objects such as nanoparticles and other nanomaterials for biomedical applications that have the potential to improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In particular, nanotechnology has the potential to make medicine more personalized. However, to realize the goal of personalized medicine, multidisciplinary teams of collaborating scientists must manage and analyze large amounts of data generated from basic, pre-clinical and clinical studies, and clinical outcomes in an integrated way. Before one can effectively use the large and diverse nanomedicine datasets in translational research efforts to achieve the goal of personalized medicine, there are several unresolved issues related to information management in nanomedicine that have to be addressed. Three areas of nanomedicine informatics are critical in addressing these issues: information resources; taxonomies, controlled vocabularies and ontologies; and, information standards. Progress towards resolving these issues is essential to the rapidly growing field of nanomedicine informatics. (PDF)
Nov. 3 Host: Yongsheng Chen, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
Presented by
Wen Zhang (Ph.D., E.I.T., Postdoctoral fellow) and Yongsheng Chen* (Ph.D., Associate Professor, PI)
Topic title
: "
Cytotoxic effects of engineered nanoparticles at the bio-nano interface"
Abstract: Our previous studies have indicated that at the bio-nano interface, sorption behavior and cytotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), is affected by particle size and size-dependent particle properites (e.g., hydrophobicity, surface charge, aggregation state, ion release potential, crystallinity, and shape). ENPs may induce cytotoxic effects through binding to cell surface ligands, direct contact with cellular regions leading to changes in free surface energy, conformational changes or oxidant injury caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this presentation, we will introduce the experiments that we have conducted to address some of the above interfacial damage to the cells from the physical and chemical perspectives. Physical damages to the cell surfaces have been investigated via measuring cell surface properties of hardness or softness, elasticity, adhesiveness, and surface electric potential upon exposure to NPs. In the case of hematite (α-Fe2O3) and E. coli cells, we found that E. coli cells deformed severely after 45-min exposure to hematite NPs as well as lost cellular integrity and surface appendages (e.g., pili and flagella).  The cell surface became coarser, stiffer, and more adhesive with hematite NPs attached.  Moreover, surface potential shifted to more negatively charged with the attachment of hematite NPs. The restuls give insight into the interfacial damages of NPs to the cell surfaces and present a unique angle of understanding the disurption mechanisms on cell surface integrity from a physical perspective.
Regarding the chemical damages to cell membrane, the generation of ROS is the central cause for lipid peroxidation, enzyme or protein oxidation. Thus, we conducted a systematical examination of the ROS formation on various selected ENPs (i.e., TiO2, CeO2, CuO, QDs, Au, Ag, and graphene oxide) in an effort of comparing their toxicity potentials based on the produced ROS and futher understanding size effects. In the case of CdSe/ZnS QDs, we detected the formation of superoxide radical (O2•−) under UV irradiation (254 nm), whereas singlet oxygen (1O2), and hydroxyl radical (•OH) were not found or lower than the detection limits. The ROS eventualy led to photo-oxidative dissolution of QDs and toxic heavy metals (Cd and Zn) were released, which may have toxicological significance. [
Wenjie Sun, Antonia Luna-Velasco, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez, Jim A. Field]  (PDF)
Nov. 17 Host: Juan J. de Pablo, Director, Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Presented by: Gregory N. Toepperwein, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Title: "Modeling of Environmentally Friendly Siloxane-Based Lithography Solvents"
Abstract:  Future lithographic development demands new solvents capable of addressing pattern collapse while catering to an ever-growing environmental concern.  Siloxane-based solvents provide an opportunity to address these challenges.  Coupling hands on experimental work with computer simulation enables the characterization of effective chemical platforms as well as providing the first information on the mechanisms of action for this new class of lithographic solvents.
 (PDF) (PPT- w/movie)
Dec. 1 Host: Jim Field, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Presented by:  Wenjie "Alex" Sun, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona
Topic title:  "
The Role of Protein Oxidation in the Toxicity of Inorganic Nanoparticles"
Growth in the nanotechnology application is leading to increased production of nanoparticles (NPs). The semiconductor manufacturing industry is already using NPs of SiO2, Al2O3 and CeO2 in the chemical mechanical planarization process. Additionally, a wide variety of inorganic NPs are being considered for emerging processes in the industry. This has given rise to concerns about the potential adverse and toxic effects to the biological system and environment. Oxidative stress to cells caused by NPs through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or via direct oxidation of biomolecules is considered to be an important mechanism of NPs toxicity. A rapid method has been established to monitor the ROS production by NPs via the reaction with L-dopa in the presence of oxygen at the University of Arizona. In this study, a protein oxidation assay was developed to determine the role of protein oxidation in NPs toxicity. The protein oxidation was evaluated by use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the protein carbonyl derivatives as the product of protein oxidation. The testing identified that Cu, CuO, Mn2O3 and Fe0 are the reactive NPs causing protein oxidation; whereas, many of the other NPs tested are not reactive or very slow reactive with proteins. Particle size and presence of oxygen also played important roles in the protein oxidation.  (PDF)
Dec. 15 Host: Duane Boning, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science MIT
Presented by Prof. Ahmed Busnaina, William Lincoln Smith Chair Professor at Northeastern University and Director of the NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High Rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN)
Topic title
"Rethinking Manufacturing: Directed Assembly Based Nanomanufacturing and the Role of CMP"
Present fabrication facilities that manufactures nanoscale devices such as consumer electronics costs $5-10 billion. This high cost of entry barrier completely shuts out small and medium sized businesses. Dramatically lowering such barriers would spur innovation and the creation of entirely new industries. A directed assembly based nanomanufacturing factory could be built for as low as $25 million, a fraction of today’s cost, making nanotechnology accessible to millions of new innovators and entrepreneurs and unleash a wave of creativity in the same way as the advent of the PC did for computing.
The NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (CHN) is developing tools and processes to conduct fast massive directed assembly of nanoscale elements by controlling the forces required to assemble, detach, and transfer nanoelements at high rates and over large areas. The center has developed templates with nanofeatures to direct the assembly of carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles (down to 10 nm) into nanoscale structures in a short time (in seconds) and over a large area (measured in inches).  The nanotemplates can also be used to assemble conducting polymers and demonstrated that the patterned polymer can be transferred onto a second substrate. We have developed a damascene template, fabricated by micro/nanofabrication process and chemical mechanical polishing methods (CMP) to provide a robust/reusable template capable of directed assembly of nanoscale structures. In this template the metallic micro and nanowires are connected to a conductive film (gold or tungsten) underneath the insulating substrate and CMP is used to ensure that uniform charges for the nanowires for uniform directed assembly over the wafer.
The center has many applications where the technology has been demonstrated. For example, a room temeprture and pressure SWNT interconnect was developed. A
nonvolatile memory switches using (SWNTs) or molecules assembled on a wafer level. A new biosensor chip (0.02 mm2) capable of detecting multiple biomarkers simultaneously and the bio sensor can be in vitro and in vivo with a detection limit that’s 200 times lower than current technology.  A new autonomous chemical sensor with a low detection limit that less than 1 mm3 that can collect and transmits data. The center has developed the fundamental science and engineering platform necessary to manufacture a wide array of applications ranging from electronics, energy, and materials to biotechnology. (PDF)
Dec. 29 No TeleSeminar--Holiday Schedule

Report Changes : Top : Back